Journal of Civil Engineering and Urbanism  
Volume 8, Issue 5: 54-58; September 25, 2018  
Design of Composition of Basalt Fibre Concrete  
Dang Van Thanh  
Department of Civil Engineering, Vietnam National University of Forestry, Hanoi, Vietnam  
*Corresponding author’s Email:  
Fibre-reinforced concrete is an emerging trend that delivers new materials with high quality for construction. Basalt  
fibre, an mineral fibre, has high potential to be used for reinforcing concrete, but there has been little research  
conducted into using this fibre for concrete reinforcement worldwide and no research work on this fibre reinforced  
concrete has been published in Vietnam. Therefore, researching into Baslat fibre reinforced concrete to establish  
fundamental understandings and material mixture recommendations is considered to be scientifically significant and  
practically worthwhile, especially for the climate and construction conditions in Vietnam. With the use of  
theoretical and experimental research methods, a procedure for designing the composition of Basalt fibre reinforced  
concrete was achieved and presented in this paper.  
Keywords: Basalt fibre, Fibre reinforced concrete, Concrete, Concrete component design  
improving the performances of Jute/Polyproplyene  
composite; Nguyen (2014) researched on enhancing  
shear strength for concrete beam by glass fibre; Hoang  
(2017) experimental study on some features of  
Polypropylene fibre concrete.  
In recent years, there have been many studies on fibre  
reinforced concrete in the world with reinforced fibre  
types such as steel fibre, glass fibre, mineral fibre, lignin  
fibre, polyester fibre, etc. The published research works  
have been mainly concentrated on the effect of fibre to  
concrete, the selection of suitable fibre and the  
determination of optimal fibre volume fraction. Sim and  
Park (2005) who studied on basalt fibre reinforced  
concrete indicated that the tensile strength of basalt fibre  
reinforced concrete increased 1.5 to 2 times, and  
elongation capacity of the reinforced concrete raised 4÷6  
times as opposed to the respective properties of a  
traditional concrete. Dias and Thaumaturgo (2005)  
showed that concrete reinforced by basalt fibre with  
2.65kg/m3 could increase compressive and fracture  
tensile strength by 26.4% and 12%, respectively  
compared to those of a traditional concrete. Some of the  
research works in China (Jie, 2011; Chang, 2012;  
Zhaoxian, 2009) have showed that: when basalt fibre  
volume fractions of 0%, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% were used  
in concrete with B30 grade, the tests showed that the  
compressive strength for 28 days increased with the  
increase of the volume fraction of the fibre and the  
maximum increase of the strength was 31.5%; however,  
the strength only increased slightly in B50 grade when  
the volume fractions of the fibre increased; when fibre  
volume fraction increased, the properties of concrete  
increased accordingly with the compressive strength and  
fracture tensile strength being the most sensitive to the  
increase. In Vietnam, there have also been some studies  
on this field: Doan (2010) carried out investigation on  
Through the review of the previous research work  
above, it has shown that experimental methods were  
helpful for the studies of fibre reinforced concrete.  
However, the number of experiments and the systematic  
methodologies were still limited. There has been little  
research on Basalt fibre and none has published on the  
design method of concrete composition for this fibre  
reinforcement. Therefore, the research work presented in  
this paper has been focused onto Basalt fibre as  
reinforcement for concrete. With the use of the  
experimental testing method through slump criteria and  
compressive strength properties, composition of Basalt  
fibre-reinforced concrete was investigated and presented  
in this paper.  
Portland cement PCB-40 manufactured in Vietnam  
was used. The technical properties of this cement are in  
(2009). Its typical properties are shown in Table 1. Fine  
aggregate and coarse aggregate used for this study was  
produced from local sources in Hanoi city of Vietnam.  
Technical properties of fine and coarse aggregates were  
in accordance with Vietnam Standard (2006). Water  
used for mixing the concrete was as per the  
recommendation in Vietnam Standard (2012). The fibre  
To cite this paper: Van Thanh D (2019). Design of Composition of Basalt Fibre Concrete. J. Civil Eng. Urban., 8 (5): 54-58.  
used was basalt fibre. The picture of basalt fibre is  
shown in Figure 1, and its properties are shown in Table  
3) Determine the amount of cement (C) and basalt  
fibre (F);  
4) Determine the amount of coarse and fine  
aggregate (Ca), (Fa);  
Table 1. Typical properties of cement PCB-40  
5) Finalise the theoretical calculations;  
6) Verify the calculations by experimental tests.  
Typical properties  
Compressive strength  
- 3 days (± 45 minutes)  
- 28 days ( ± 8 hours)  
Setting time  
- Initial  
- Final  
The experimental method for determining the  
slump and compressive strengths  
The slump of mixture and compressive strength of  
the concrete were determined according to Vietnamese  
21 N/mm2  
40 N/mm2  
≥ 45 mins  
≤ 375 mins  
- The amount of 0,09 mm sieve  
- Blain rate  
10 %  
≥ 2800 cm2/g  
Determining the amount of mixing water  
The amount of water (W) was determined based on  
the conditions of the materials and designing  
requirements. Chosen concrete grade was B15 with  
average compressive strength Rb = 20Mpa; the coarse  
aggregate used had the largest diameter Dmax= 20mm.  
The slump of concrete mixture and the amount of  
mixing water was selected by the method used in  
common constructions (Pham et al., 2011): for coarse  
aggregate, crushed stones with Dmax = 20mm were used,  
and the slump of mixture was about 6 ÷ 8cm. The  
amount of water determined for 1m3 of the concrete was  
205 litres.  
Determining the ratio of cement to water  
The ratio of cement to water (C/W) was based on  
the Bolomey Skramtaev formula (Pham et al., 2011):  
Regular concrete (C/W = 1.4 ÷ 2.5):  
Figure 1. Basalt fibre  
Table 2. Properties of Basalt fibre  
2,65 g/cm3  
High strength concrete (C/W > 2.5):  
Ultimate elongation  
7 ÷ 13µm  
6 ÷ 12mm  
Fiber length  
Melting point  
Tensile strength  
Resistance to acid and base  
Young’s modulus  
Water absorption  
Health risk  
4100 ÷ 4840 MPa  
In which: RC the strength of cement (RC  
40MPa); Rb the strength of concrete at 28 days; A and  
A1 the factors of raw materials, were indicated in  
reference (Pham et al., 2011). The raw materials used  
were with good quality and the strength of concrete was  
20MPa. Therefore, the formula was selected for a regular  
concrete with A = 0.55.  
93.1 ÷ 110 GPa  
Safe, non-toxic  
The theoretical and experimental methods were  
used to design the concrete components. By theoretical  
calculations in combination with laboratory tests, the  
concrete components were determined through two  
indicators, namely, the strength and slump of the  
concrete mixture. In particular, the following procedure  
was carried out:  
The cement water ratio was finally calculated to  
be: C/W = 1.41.  
Determining the amount of cement and fibre  
Determining the amount of cement (C) was based  
on C/W ratio which was determined in the above step.  
, kg  
1) Determine the amount of mixing water (W);  
2) Determine the ratio of cement to water (C/W);  
To cite this paper: Van Thanh D (2019). Design of Composition of Basalt Fibre Concrete. J. Civil Eng. Urban., 8 (5): 54-58.  
From the amount of water W = 205 litres and the  
C/W ratio = 1.42 determined above, the amount of  
cement for 1m3 of concrete was calculated to be 290 kg.  
The amount of cement should be compared to the  
amount of minimum and maximum cement (Cmin and  
Cmax) which are based on the design standard. The  
determined cement amount was within the range for the  
minimum and maximum cement in Vietnam standard.  
The reinforcing fibre content was determined from  
the published research results in the research  
review of the published results, the amount of basalt  
fibre for 1m3 of concrete was selected to be 2.5 kg.  
cursed stone (γaCa = 2.8 g/cm3); γaFa weight of solid  
particles of sand (γaFa = 2.75g/cm3).  
Substituting all these parameters into the above  
formula gives the amount of sand: Fa = 681kg.  
Summarizing the theoretical calculation results  
The calculated results for 1m3 of concrete is shown  
in Table 4.  
Table 4. The results of the theoretically calculated  
Ca (kg)  
Fa (kg)  
W (kg)  
C (littre)  
Determining the amount of coarse and fine  
Verifying the calculated results by experiment  
and adjustment  
Checking the slump of mixture: Kneading the  
mixture with the identified ingredients in the theoretical  
calculations (Table 4) and testing the slump of mixture.  
If the experiment slump is smaller than the  
required slump (S < Syc) the amount of water and cement  
must be adjusted with the W/C ratio being maintained  
If S > Syc: the amount of sand and crushed stone  
must be changed; however, the Fa/Ca ratio must be kept  
Determining the amount of coarse aggregate  
(crushed stone - Ca): The formula for 1m3 of concrete  
was determined as follows:  
Where: rCa - porosity of crushed stone; kd - loss  
coefficient, determined in Table 3; γ0Ca - volumetric  
weight of crushed stone, g/cm3; γaCa - density of solid  
particles of crushed stone, g/cm3.  
If S = Syc: The result was used and the raw  
materials were adjusted for 1m3 of concrete.  
The adjustments of the raw materials were  
calculated by the following formulas:  
Table 3. Loss coefficient in concrete  
Cement in 1m3 of  
Crushed stone  
Ca’ = 1000. Ca/V; Fa’ = 1000. Fa/V;  
C’ = 1000. C/V;  
W’ = 1000. W/V  
Here: Ca, Fa, C, W: the amount of the crushed  
stone, sand, cement and water for the volume (litre) of  
the concrete mixture (kg), respectively;  
Ca’, Fa’, C’, W’: the amount of the crushed stone,  
sand, cement and water for 1m3 of the concrete mixture  
after the adjustment for the slump, respectively.  
The experiment conducted for this study is  
illustrated in Figure 2.  
The cement amount calculated above was C =  
292kg, from Table 3, kd = 1.36; crushed stone having:  
volumetric weight of crushed stone: γ0Ca = 1.48g/cm3;  
density of solid particles of crushed stone: γaCa  
2.8g/cm3 and porosity of crushed stone: rCa = 0.47.  
Substituting all the parameters into the formula, the  
amount of crushed stone in 1m3 of concrete was  
calculated to be Ca = 1267kg.  
Determining the amount of fine aggregate (Sand  
- Fa): After the amount of the mixing water, cement and  
crushed stoneware determined, the sand for 1m3 of  
concrete was calculated using the following formula:  
F 1000   
W .aFa ;kg  
aC aCa  
Where: γaC weight of solid particles of cement  
aC = 3.05g/cm3); γaCa weight of solid particles of  
Figure 2. Checking the slump of mixture  
To cite this paper: Van Thanh D (2019). Design of Composition of Basalt Fibre Concrete. J. Civil Eng. Urban., 8 (5): 54-58.  
The result of the first slump testing is presented in  
Table 5. These results indicate that the average slump is  
smaller than the required slump. Therefore, the raw  
materials for the mixed concrete need to be adjusted. In  
particular, the amount of cement and water was  
increased while C/W ratio was kept constant. The water  
and cement was added and the slump was monitored by  
subsequent slump tests until the required slump was  
presented in Table 8. The results in Table 8 show that the  
average compressive strength of the concrete sample are  
greater than the required compressive strength, but the  
difference is not too greater than 15%. Therefore, the  
results of the concrete mixture design were considered  
acceptable. A summary of the experimental results is  
presented in Table 9.  
It took several rounds of the adjustment of the  
amount of water and cement and slump tests until the  
required slump was achieved. The final results for the  
desirable portions of the raw materials are shown in  
Table 6. With the proportion of the ingredients in the  
Table 6, the slump of the samples are shown in the Table  
Table 5. The result of the first slump testing, cm  
Sample 1  
Sample 2  
Sample 3  
Figure 3. Testing conducted for the compressive  
Table 6. The final result of the adjusted ingredients  
Table 8. The results of compressive strength test, MPa  
Ca (kg)  
Fa (kg)  
C (littre)  
W (kg)  
Sample 1  
Sample 2  
Sample 3  
Table 9. Summary of the experimental results  
Table 7. The results of the satisfactory slump tests, cm  
Sample 1  
Sample 2  
Sample 3  
Verifying compressive strength of the concrete:  
The concrete mixture that gave the satisfactory slump  
was used to make samples for the compressive strength  
tests. The concrete mixture was maintained for 28 days.  
During this period, the concrete mixture was covered  
with wet cloth for the first day and soaked in water for  
the remaining 27 days. The average compressive  
strength (Rb28) was then determined and compared with  
the required compressive strength (Rb):  
If Rb28 > Rb and the average compressive strength  
was 15% larger than the required compressive strength,  
then the amount of the cement was reduced. If Rb28 > Rb  
but the average compressive strength is not 15% larger  
than the required compressive strength, the results were  
considered acceptable.  
In reality, different methods could be used for the design  
of the concrete mixture components. However,  
combining the theoretical calculations with suitable  
experimental tests has been considered the best method  
for high accuracy. With the goal of designing the  
concrete components using basalt as fibre reinforcement  
to make a mixture that has a 20MPa compressive  
strength, the theoretical calculations in combination with  
experimental testing through slump and compressive  
strength indicators of the samples have been successfully  
used for the study in this paper to achieve the desirable  
results of the concrete mixture. The basic ingredients for  
1m3 of concrete have been identified and a specific  
procedure has been established for the design of the  
basic components for the polypropylene basalt fibre-  
reinforced concrete.  
If Rb28 < Rb, the cement grade needed to be re-  
selected and other materials needed to be re-calculated.  
If Rb28 = Rb we accept the result of the design and  
adjusting raw materials for 1m3 of concrete. The method  
is conducted same as conducting for slump.  
The experiment for the compressive strength is  
shown in Figure 3. The results of the experiment for the  
concrete compressive strength made from a mixture of  
the ingredients that had been corrected for the slump are  
Competing interests  
The author declare that it has no competing  
To cite this paper: Van Thanh D (2019). Design of Composition of Basalt Fibre Concrete. J. Civil Eng. Urban., 8 (5): 54-58.  
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To cite this paper: Van Thanh D (2019). Design of Composition of Basalt Fibre Concrete. J. Civil Eng. Urban., 8 (5): 54-58.