Journal of Civil Engineering and Urbanism  
Volume 8, Issue 6: 66-70; November 25, 2018  
Restoration and Rehabilitation of Historical Context  
Mahdieh Alipour and Hanieh Akbarpour  
Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Maragheh Branch, Technical and Vocational University (TVU), East Azarbaijan, Iran  
Corresponding author’s Email:  
The conventional development system in the country is unaware of the potential possibilities of historical contexts  
and has led them to erosion and destruction more than ever in the course of development. Getting out of this  
phenomenon requires serious attention to these assets, which in themselves have the theme of sustainable  
development. Old neighbourhoods in historical contexts reflect the structure of the family, neighbourhood units,  
social, economic, cultural and physical structure that changes related to changes from the first Pahlavi period  
onwards, changed their structure and overshadowed their inherent identity. The main purpose of this article is to  
establish a measured relationship between conservation and part of sustainable development that can link assets in  
historical contexts to the new city, as original models in the development system. The research method is analytical-  
interpretive and with a pathological view from the social, cultural and economic aspects. The main findings of the  
research emphasize the wide dimensions of the structures in the historical city. On the other hand, it considers  
tourism as a part of the economic development system in the texture and in the connection between the old and the  
new city. The final product of this research is to achieve strategies with an asset-based approach in order to make  
the new urban development system aware of the social, physical, economic and cultural capital of historical  
Key words: Architectural spaces, Restoration, Historical Context, Rehabilitation, Neighbourhoods  
Original structures of historical context  
Existing structures of historical context  
Optimal and alternative structures in the historical  
Today, historical contexts in our country play the role of  
urban service centers and residential neighborhoods  
(Niroumand Shishvan, 2016). Some are considered as  
workplaces and suitable for economic, social and cultural  
activities and have different physical forms that, while  
presenting some differences, are deeply connected with  
the spatial physical elements of the contemporary city. On  
the other hand, some of these textures have become  
deserted neighborhoods and islands isolated from urban  
Historical structures in a number of cities and towns  
are an active part of the contemporary city structure, such  
as the commercial structure of Tehran, which still plays  
this role. However, life in the historical context is in no  
way separate from urban life, but both form a whole. "The  
social structure of the historical context is structures with  
a historical pattern that have undergone changes in the  
critical growth conditions of the city and have been  
exposed to crisis damage" (such as family structure,  
neighborhood unit and other issues). Controlling critical  
growth and contributing to the sustainability of urban  
development is a necessity that will not be possible  
without restoring balance and achieving structural unity of  
the city, so this can be achieved by establishing the unity  
of new social structures in Tehran with its historical  
structures. In general, the social structures of historical  
contexts are divided into three groups:  
The first group acts as a potential for the second and  
third group ( From the late Qajar and the beginning of the  
Pahlavi era the critical growth of the city begins due to  
social, political and economic changes at the national and  
global levels. One of the mechanisms to deal with this  
crisis is to pay attention to the historical core of cities and  
empower their social structure at local, national and global  
levels as a leading model in urban reform. In this paper,  
macro-social, spatial, physical and environmental  
categories of historical contexts, such as civic life, the  
relationship between man and the environment, space and  
place, bio-economics, and other issues are considered.  
Because of their socio-human structures, the historical  
context, have a mechanism similar to that of human  
beings and have passed on their basic characteristics to  
future generations. Thus, through the mechanisms of  
regeneration, the concept of internal regeneration of  
historical textures will be realized, and if the phenomenon  
of regeneration neglects this, it will lose its true meaning.  
The protection of cultural heritage assets, what is now  
called ‘cultural heritage management’ and in the USA is  
often called ‘cultural resource management’, has long  
been primarily about the conservation or restoration of  
monuments, even when attributed cultural significance  
occurs throughout an urban area (Veldpaus et al., 2013).  
To cite this paper: Alipour  
and Akbarpour  
(2018). Restoration and rehabilitation of historical context. J. Civil Eng. Urban., 8 (6): 66-70. DOI:  
Restoration: Architectural restoration is a branch of  
architectural art that leads to the physical, structural and  
functional restoration of historical spaces, based on the  
knowledge and study of historical and archeological  
buildings and textures. This art, which is a mixed branch  
of knowledge, technology, engineering and architectural  
art, includes various forms and levels of research on  
historical art and architecture, and it can be defined and  
interpreted in various scales.  
in its current state compared to its previous state. There is  
no claim in this method to make extraordinary decisions,  
whether technical or philosophical.  
2- Stylistic reconstruction or anastylosis:  
Reconstruction of the architectural style of buildings  
belonging to buildings of very old times, the extent of  
their destruction is so great that they are not limited to  
building elements. Buildings are restored to anastylosis,  
which indicates the existence of a particular style or  
method of architecture.  
3- Stylistic cleaning  
The extent of the interference and the number of  
elements or sections added to the main building may be  
recognized as extreme or unnecessary by the next restorer.  
Following such a perception, the building is freed from  
elements that are found to be heterogeneous and  
redundant in relation to the original form of the building.  
The ruling that what was later added to or taken from the  
body of the building and combined with it in another way,  
and should be removed, is highly controversial and  
rejected in the written and authoritative literature of the  
last half century. This style of operational reconstruction  
is quite the opposite of what has been said so far.  
Therefore, anything unrelated to our architecture is  
removed to preserve its true form in the past. Upon  
complete inspection of the building, additional parts and  
elements of the building will be removed.  
Definitions of Restoration Science: As a general and  
specific term, restoration is  
intervention to ensure the continuity of a work of art.  
Definition of restoration concepts: The most important  
concepts used in restoration include renovation,  
improvement and reconstruction, which together mean  
Improvement: A series of procedures to improve the  
body in short term and include repair, protection, support  
and strengthening that together mean the physical concept  
of rehabilitation.  
Renovation: A set of actions that replaces old  
structures with new ones or gives them a very new look.  
Reconstruction: means mechanical reconstruction and  
without considering the intellectual and theoretical  
dimensions of the modernist, it’s a structural state of  
architecture or urban planning that has been destroyed.  
Types of restoration and its styles: From 1840  
onwards, two types of restoration theories gradually  
4- Supplementary or additional restoration:  
Reconstruction of the lost parts of the old building is done  
in order to complete the physical and functional existence  
of the building and to participate in the public life of the  
Scientific and archaeological restoration: excavating  
classical buildings, mounting their components and  
elements, as well as shaping the building for tourists to  
visit and for researchers to study. The buildings of this  
type belong to the classical period, especially Greece and  
Rome, so their function has changed throughout history  
and is kept only for study and research.  
The artistic restoration: in which the restorer allows  
himself to re-create and reconstruct parts of the building  
that have been destroyed or did not exist at all with his  
fantasy. The buildings of this type are related to the  
Gothic and Renaissance periods.  
identifying and classifying the various basic goals and  
needs that are the main drivers of architectural restoration,  
represent the well-known, stable, and generalizable  
architectural methods of restoration which according to  
their differences, existing experiences and topics have  
more or less appeared in reputable books and publications  
related to architectural restoration. This classification is:  
1- Protective restoration:  
5- Reconstruction or historical restoration: In this  
way, the historical role of the building will determine how  
it will be restored. In practice, this type of regeneration is  
formed by combining anastylosis, freeing the building  
from non-original parts, and supplementary restoration.  
6- Strengthening restoration: Intervention in the  
physical condition of the building is done to strengthen  
and ensure the stability of the building complexes.  
7- Comprehensive restoration: In this type of  
restoration, measures are taken to erect, protect and  
rehabilitate the building, and all styles may be used. In  
this type of restoration, in addition to erecting and  
maintaining the building, the function and restoration of  
the building is also important  
Historical periods of restoration  
Restoration in the Middle Ages  
1- Reconstruction in terms of shape and form  
2- No attention was paid to the principles of aesthetics and  
archeological issues  
Its main purpose is to maintain and protect the  
building. In protective restoration, the amount of  
intervention in the existing form and conditions is such  
that it can maintain the similarity of the restored building  
Restoration in the Renaissance  
1- Using the effect as a model  
2- Manipulation in the building was normal (adding or  
completing a part)  
To cite this paper: Alipour  
and Akbarpour  
(2018). Restoration and rehabilitation of historical context. J. Civil Eng. Urban., 8 (6): 66-70. DOI:  
3- The principle of beauty has been considered by the  
4. The architects of this period believed that the  
monument should be completed as it should be (and  
for some reason remained incomplete).  
several historical cities. The seminar on the continuation  
of life in the context of 1988 was subsequently held in the  
old year of Iranian cities by the restoration group of the  
University of Science and Technology, and a collection of  
articles focusing on the values in the historical context  
was published. The most important results of this seminar  
in 1993 - the need to pay attention to physical disorders 1  
is as follows:  
1. The need for cooperation between all institutions  
and social tissues.  
2. The need to form new institutions in the context  
of people's participation  
3. The need to criticize the activities carried out  
historically. Establishment of a study center for the  
preservation and restoration of historical textures. In an  
article entitled "A Review of Neighborhood Sustainable  
Development Policies with an Asset-Based Approach and  
Emphasis on Social and Physical Employees", the final  
conclusion according to the concept of sustainable  
neighborhood development in an asset-based approach is  
the cohesion of capital is a practical solution for  
sustainable neighborhood development, and this  
neighborhood development will ultimately lead to a real  
improvement in the quality of life of people. Recreating  
historical contexts generally requires effective and  
appropriate measures which the context is faced with,  
because each of the above contexts is in stable, relatively  
stable and sometimes unstable conditions.  
Restoration in the Baroque period  
Importance of the restored part so that the original  
work was of secondary importance. During this period the  
following powers were given to the repairer:  
1- Creating a new work due to using the architectural  
features of the restoration time  
2- Completing the work of art with an argument: It may  
have been like this one day.  
3- Using works of art separated from the work as a  
decorative factor or décor  
Restoration during the Industrial Revolution  
The three arts of this period (architecture, painting,  
and sculpture) have become secondary in nature because  
they are based on the nature of objects and the experience  
of the past. Reconstruction and restoration activities for  
historical buildings are executed in accordance with the  
Existing standards for conservation of historical and  
cultural monuments (Kareeva and Glazkova, 2017). The  
system of classical architecture manifests the necessary  
features that are beyond the historical limitations in a  
particular work. Whereas in the "Romanticism" period,  
which is the period after Neoclassicism, they value the art  
that really has artistic value. It is no different from the  
original work and all stages of study and research have  
been done and planned by archaeologists. Restoration of  
classical buildings due to the importance of the classical  
period, both for sale and for the preservation of works - in  
the absence of sufficient evidence, the restoration was  
done even with speculation.  
For some time, heritage and landscape have constituted  
unrelated terms. Still, for much of the nineteenth century,  
a monument was considered and conceived as something  
completely isolated from its environment (Azpeitia  
Acceptable restoration in this course: 1- Stylistic  
restoration (Jovanikazanova); 2- Observance of  
Winkelmann hierarchy.  
Historical contexts over time  
Today, the remnants and evidences of planned  
interventions in most cities of Iran can be traced and  
observed over time. At some point in history,  
governments have intervened in the structure of Iranian  
cities in order to achieve their political and economic  
goals and created spaces in connection with the old city  
and in the monopoly of government functions. The  
reflection of the change in the ruling dynasties of Iran can  
be seen in the appearance of many ancient cities of the  
country. Among the Seljuk and Safavid actions in Isfahan  
and Qazvin, the actions of the Ilkhanids and Agh  
Quyunlus in Tabriz, as well as the Safavid and Zandi  
actions in Shiraz and Qajar in Tehran, are clear examples  
of changes in the political structure of historical contexts.  
Today, the product of these historical developments is  
considered balanced. "The important point is that the  
above measures have shown stability in the face of social,  
economic and political developments in cities in the past  
centuries and now offer a system of different values."  
However, major changes in Iran's historic cities since the  
advent of modernity, i.e. from the Pahlavi period,  
Background of historical context  
The first seminar on historical contexts in Iran was  
held at the University of Tehran under the title "The first  
1350 years of seminar on the restoration of historic  
buildings and cities." The emphasis of the results of this  
seminar is as follows:  
Emphasis on a comprehensive understanding of  
the situation of historical centers in Iran. On the  
importance of the place of protection and restoration of  
historic buildings and cities in the development system, in  
addition to the technical and cultural dimension  
Emphasis on the need to develop protection  
criteria. Since 1986, an office called the Office for the  
Improvement of Historical Textures was established in the  
Ministry of Housing and Urban Development at the time,  
the product of which was to provide special plans with  
relevant regulations in order to protect the textures of  
To cite this paper: Alipour  
and Akbarpour  
(2018). Restoration and rehabilitation of historical context. J. Civil Eng. Urban., 8 (6): 66-70. DOI:  
concentrations weakened the traditional social structure of  
power in the city, including urban, rural, and nomadic  
powers, and the pattern of life that had hitherto been  
harmonized in the city and the countryside took a deep  
toll. Kurdish and the pattern of consumption in cities was  
contrasted with the pattern of production in rural areas. In  
contrast to the developments in the valley of urban  
development, the imbalance with various social, cultural,  
economic and physical manifestations and spatial  
manifestations can be seen in the general view of cities of  
this period. New cities of Iran, in particular, the texture of  
Tehran in the development system has moved out of its  
historical context, social, natural and indigenous  
environment and has become part of the functional and  
mechanical system of the city, but the relative revival of  
comprehensiveness of the past, using historical texture  
patterns is to some extent achievable. On the other hand,  
the phenomenon of imbalance in the blurred context of  
some of the cities of Iran due to aging over time, is a  
matter imposed on its body and is not inherent and it can  
certainly get closer to equilibrium by changing the  
approach. The historical context of Iranian cities as a  
center of transferring valuable experiences, especially  
Cultural themes have a value that can be protected and  
revived, including the fundamental role of housing model  
and the importance and value of home and family in the  
concept of privacy in neighborhoods in the historical  
context of the country as a stable social structure. The  
social structure of the historical context is based on the  
spatial unit of the neighborhood. The neighborhood has a  
convergent and internal structure and causes social  
convergence. "Unfortunately, this neighborhood pattern  
has been neglected in the urban development system."  
Unconsidered actions, the sense of historical time between  
the observer and the television as a process, distorted and  
the concept of television in the general form, both the  
establishment and the general landscape is destroyed, this  
process occurs while protecting the continuity of the  
historic city structure and its connection with Sustainable  
urban development models will improve the quality of the  
environment. The asset-based approach will help for  
conservation, restoration, and rehabilitation with the  
discovery of context assets, documenting them and  
determining the capacity for it, according to the rights of  
citizens as the main owners, with a bottom-up and  
process-oriented approach. In contrast, there is a need-  
based approach that sees the old neighborhood and  
context as a dilemma, and plans from the top down and  
sees the citizen as the recipient of help. Its product is  
consequential and in fact distinguishes between people  
and places in the development process. With this  
interpretation, the texture of Odlajan can be considered as  
an asset, the documentation of which will be the basis of  
restoration planning.  
A: Empowerment of some historical social structures  
that can be maintained, revived and promoted according  
to the records and evidence  
B: Empowerment of social structures in the historical  
context of Tehran to play the role that these contexts will  
play in contemporary and future urban life.  
A: Empowerment of social structures in the historical  
context of Tehran (after compensating for the damage  
done to them during the growth of urbanization crisis and  
urban development, so they need some kind of  
empowerment). In all three of the above cases, the  
possibility of success in the perspective of empowering  
the social structure of historical contexts is obvious  
Paying attention to heritage assets in the development  
system, over time and extracting sustainable foundations  
from them to facilitate the future path "is an issue that is  
always possible due to the slogan”, so the present article is  
about historical time and historical place and events  
monitor the development process in Iranian cities. In this  
regard, the following are the products of this research: a)  
establishing a balance between development means  
expansion and protection with the aim of improving the  
quality of the environment: once the destruction of urban  
neighborhoods and historic sites was considered a concept  
of progress, but now planners. It is important to realize  
that the protection of neighborhoods and past heritage is  
one of the sustainable foundations in the development of  
the city. Therefore, creating  
balance between  
development and conservation improves the quality of  
environmental and social life and considers the identity of  
the place. This policy will definitely overshadow the  
broad goals of conservation and development.  
Authors’ Contributions  
Both the authors contributed equally to this work.  
Competing interests  
The authors declare that they have no competing  
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To cite this paper: Alipour  
and Akbarpour  
(2018). Restoration and rehabilitation of historical context. J. Civil Eng. Urban., 8 (6): 66-70. DOI:  
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To cite this paper: Alipour  
and Akbarpour  
(2018). Restoration and rehabilitation of historical context. J. Civil Eng. Urban., 8 (6): 66-70. DOI: