Restoration: Architectural restoration is a branch of
architectural art that leads to the physical, structural and
functional restoration of historical spaces, based on the
knowledge and study of historical and archeological
buildings and textures. This art, which is a mixed branch
of knowledge, technology, engineering and architectural
art, includes various forms and levels of research on
historical art and architecture, and it can be defined and
interpreted in various scales.
in its current state compared to its previous state. There is
no claim in this method to make extraordinary decisions,
whether technical or philosophical.
2- Stylistic reconstruction or anastylosis:
Reconstruction of the architectural style of buildings
belonging to buildings of very old times, the extent of
their destruction is so great that they are not limited to
building elements. Buildings are restored to anastylosis,
which indicates the existence of a particular style or
method of architecture.
3- Stylistic cleaning
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The extent of the interference and the number of
elements or sections added to the main building may be
recognized as extreme or unnecessary by the next restorer.
Following such a perception, the building is freed from
elements that are found to be heterogeneous and
redundant in relation to the original form of the building.
The ruling that what was later added to or taken from the
body of the building and combined with it in another way,
and should be removed, is highly controversial and
rejected in the written and authoritative literature of the
last half century. This style of operational reconstruction
is quite the opposite of what has been said so far.
Therefore, anything unrelated to our architecture is
removed to preserve its true form in the past. Upon
complete inspection of the building, additional parts and
elements of the building will be removed.
Definitions of Restoration Science: As a general and
specific term, restoration is
intervention to ensure the continuity of a work of art.
Definition of restoration concepts: The most important
concepts used in restoration include renovation,
improvement and reconstruction, which together mean
Improvement: A series of procedures to improve the
body in short term and include repair, protection, support
and strengthening that together mean the physical concept
Renovation: A set of actions that replaces old
structures with new ones or gives them a very new look.
Reconstruction: means mechanical reconstruction and
without considering the intellectual and theoretical
dimensions of the modernist, it’s a structural state of
architecture or urban planning that has been destroyed.
Types of restoration and its styles: From 1840
onwards, two types of restoration theories gradually
4- Supplementary or additional restoration:
Reconstruction of the lost parts of the old building is done
in order to complete the physical and functional existence
of the building and to participate in the public life of the
Scientific and archaeological restoration: excavating
classical buildings, mounting their components and
elements, as well as shaping the building for tourists to
visit and for researchers to study. The buildings of this
type belong to the classical period, especially Greece and
Rome, so their function has changed throughout history
and is kept only for study and research.
The artistic restoration: in which the restorer allows
himself to re-create and reconstruct parts of the building
that have been destroyed or did not exist at all with his
fantasy. The buildings of this type are related to the
Gothic and Renaissance periods.
identifying and classifying the various basic goals and
needs that are the main drivers of architectural restoration,
represent the well-known, stable, and generalizable
architectural methods of restoration which according to
their differences, existing experiences and topics have
more or less appeared in reputable books and publications
related to architectural restoration. This classification is:
1- Protective restoration:
5- Reconstruction or historical restoration: In this
way, the historical role of the building will determine how
it will be restored. In practice, this type of regeneration is
formed by combining anastylosis, freeing the building
from non-original parts, and supplementary restoration.
6- Strengthening restoration: Intervention in the
physical condition of the building is done to strengthen
and ensure the stability of the building complexes.
7- Comprehensive restoration: In this type of
restoration, measures are taken to erect, protect and
rehabilitate the building, and all styles may be used. In
this type of restoration, in addition to erecting and
maintaining the building, the function and restoration of
the building is also important
Historical periods of restoration
Restoration in the Middle Ages
1- Reconstruction in terms of shape and form
2- No attention was paid to the principles of aesthetics and
Its main purpose is to maintain and protect the
building. In protective restoration, the amount of
intervention in the existing form and conditions is such
that it can maintain the similarity of the restored building
Restoration in the Renaissance
1- Using the effect as a model
2- Manipulation in the building was normal (adding or
completing a part)
To cite this paper: Alipour
(2018). Restoration and rehabilitation of historical context. J. Civil Eng. Urban., 8 (6): 66-70. DOI: