Volume 2 : Issue 1, January 2012

Table of Contents, 30 January 2012

Research Title/ Field

Article (Abstract)


Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbons from Furfural Production Wastes

Original Article, B1
Bostancioglu M, Şeref O.
Journal. Civil Eng. Urban. 2(1): 01-05. 2012.

ABSTRACT:This study has been focused on research activated carbons which were prepared from furfural production wastes. The effects of the lower impregnation ratios to chemical structure and surface texture were determined. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and SEM analysis were studied for characterization. The FTIR results showed that there was no important change among the activated carbon samples with different acid impregnation ratios. Micro and mezopore formations were observed at lower impregnation ratios compared with the pyrolyzed char and increasing the impregnation ratio caused to macropore formation on the surface texture at SEM photographs.
Activatedcarbon, furfural, chemicalactivation, characterization


The Role of

Architectural Space in Identity to Cities

Technical Note, B2
Salaji.N, Farzaneh.M, Dorraj.P.
Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
2(1): 06-09. 2012

ABSTRACT: Nowadays the development of tourism infrastructures is generally considered as a significant factor in determining the overall progress of any given country. Modern cities sometimes go to extraordinary measures to create original and novel attractions not only to satisfy their own citizens but also to attract higher number of tourists. Thus it can be conferred that tourist-attractiveness of a city plays a vital role in the modern city managements and deserves a high attention to be paid. One of the important issues with regard to modern cities of the third millennium is the cleanness and environment-friendliness of the city which may, among other places, be seen in the measures of greenness of the city. Apparently greener the city is cleaner and more environment-friendly it will be. High rates of country-to-city immigration in many developing countries and the following lack of suitable construction lands has lead to the emergence of marginal accommodative areas and has finally turned into a crisis in many cities. Within the cities high density of buildings, traffic jams and air-pollution are among the most notable issues that need to be overcome or compromised, all of which are the consequences of high population density in developing city centers. It is only in the light of historical and cultural heritage of a city that any future development plan can come into a useful existence and it is through this heritage that solutions to already mentioned issues may be found. The new development patterns can be based upon the already-there structures and eventually may turn into a successful city pattern. One instance of such usage of the cultural heritage for the sake of further development can be seen in the city of Bilbao in Spain which through the establishment of Guggenheim Museum has gained an internationally high tourist-attractiveness in recent years.
Keywords: Stable development, architecture, tourism, developing countries.



Diffraction of Water Waves with Arrays of Vertical Cylinder

Original Article, B3
 Shiravani Gh., Sadeghi K.
  Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
2(1): 10-16. 2012

ABSTRACT: Based on Linton and Evans (1990) analytical solution, the diffraction of linear water waves by N bottom mounted circular cylinders has been investigated. In order to study the first order interaction between cylinders, the boundary condition on each cylinder surface due to the scattered waves of all other cylinders is taken into account and relations for calculation of forces acting on cylinders are derived. This paper is mainly concerned with vertical cylinders located at vertices of a square. For this configuration the phenomenon of near-trapping mode and the wavelength associated with it is considered and for different wave length the force acting on each cylinder is determined. Also the wave surface elevation around cylinders which can be legs of an offshore platform or piles of a floating island is determined and using MATLAB programming the results are plotted in three dimensional form.
Diffraction of water waves; Trapped modes; Hydrodynamic interaction; Array of vertical cylinders.



Role of Risk Perception and Other Risk Related Judgement in Road Transportation: Ado-Ekiti as Case Study

Original Article, B4
Ata G., Aderinlewo O.
Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
2(1): 17-25. 2012

ABSTRACT: The role of risk perception and other risk related judgement of the user of commercial vehicles, bicycle, buses, private cars, tankers and road haulage trucks as means of road transportation in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria were examined in this paper. In addition, the spatial dimensions of the level of commuter risk awareness in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria were explored. The respondent’s perceptions/views on each of the risks that could be experienced by vehicle drivers as well as their relative possibilities of causing accidents in each of the locations examined in Ado-Ekiti namely Old Garage, Basiri, Odo-Ado, Ilawe, Ajilosun and Opopogbooro roads have been evaluated. The factors capable of causing road accidents in the six locations considered were identified and assessed through questionnaires. Based on the results, the risk factors appeared to be site specific while ‘tailgating’ seemed to be the most dominant factor responsible for causing road accidents with up to 40% occurring along Opopogboro road.
Risk perception, spatial dimensions, commuter risk, risk factors, tailgating


Flow Visualization in Vortex Chamber

 Original Article, B5
Chapokpour J., Farhoudi J., Amiri Tokaldany E., Majedi-Asl M.
  Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
2(1): 26-34. 2012

ABSTRACT: This paper presents the results of experimental study that was accomplished in a vortex settling chamber to observe the flow structures. A polar grid of data accusation was designed to trace the velocity characteristics of the flow. An ADV three dimensional velocity measuring equipment was utilized. The experiments were conducted under four different discharges and three dimensional flow velocities were then measured. The different type secondary currents were detected in 2D manner at radial sections of vortex chamber. Additionally, it was tried to show a 3D appearance of velocity components inside the basin. It was found that flow structure of basin is highly dependent on entrance velocity. Two types of clockwise and anticlockwise vortices and some sink points combined with each other were observed in radial sections of chamber where their configurations and role were varied with flow discharge. To understand sediment trapping process in these basins, the streamlines and velocity vectors in the horizontal superimposed sections were drawn and analyzed then for motion of sediment particles the spiral settling path were observed. The 3D analyzing of sediment motion path has exhibited a different outcome from 2D analysis Such that there was not only any especial sediment motion path in the horizontal sections but also it was oriented towards up and down in its spiral circulation.
Vortex basin, ADV velocity measuring equipment, Velocity distribution, Streamline, Sediment motion path.



Numerical Investigation of Length and Thickness of Separation Zone after Sudden Change of Direction in Closed Sections

Original Article, B6
Sadeghfam.S, Akhtari.A.A.
Journal. Civil Eng. Urban. 2(1): 35-39. 2012.

ABSTRACT: Separation phenomenan which is created in result of the inverse pressure gradient reduces the efficiency of the hydraulic systems. Due to eddy flows, analytical solution is not possible. In this paper, the relationship between the length and the thickness of the separation zone versus velocity variations has been investigated by using Fluent, in closed sudden change of direction in square sections with different divergence angles. First, to verify the accuracy of the numerical model, and some other factors such as turbulent model, the results of numerical model have been compared with experimental results in a sudden expansion at several sections. Based on the results of sudden expansion analysis, the turbulence model k-e (RNG) and steady flow mode are used in analysis of two dimensional bends. The results show that for the sharp curvature with central angle of 45 degrees regardless of flow velocity, separation in internal wall doesn't happen. For the sudden change of direction with a central angle of 45 to 90 degrees, flow separation is the function of divergence angles and flow velocity. In this study, the equations in terms of length and thickness of the separation are collected via abundant numerical analysis.

Keywords: Separation, Inverse Pressure Gradient, Sudden Change of Direction, Fluent, Turbulent Model k-e (RNG)


Mechanical Behavior of Overconsoildated Caly-Sand Mixtures

Original Article, B7
Soltani-Jigheh.H and Zare.Ch.
Journal. Civil Eng. Urban. 2(1): 40-44. 2012.

ABSTRACT: The main object of this research is the evaluation of mechanical behavior of overconsolidated clay-sand mixtures. For this purpose, behavior of clayey soil mixed with different percentage of sand (20%, 40% and 60%) was studied by carrying out triaxial tests. The specimens were consolidated at a given effective stress and then overconsolidated. The results indicate that, irrespective of some exception, the values of shear strengths increase by increasing of sand content from 0% to 60%. Secant deformation modulus of specimens increases when added sand content is 20% and 40%, while it decreases with an increase in sand content from 40% to 60%.
: clay-sand mixtures, triaxial test, undrained loading, shear strength, pore water pressure


Spatial Green Spaces Distribution Analysis Using Spatial Correlation; Analyze Models: A Bonab City Case Study

Original Article, B8
Haji Alizadeh.J, Rashidi.A, Roshanroodi.S, Kamal Alavi.S.V and Zarafshan.A.
Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
2(1): 45-50. 2012.

ABSTRACT: In this article the investigation, identification and analysis of the spatial distribution of green spaces in the regions of Bonab city using spatial analysis techniques and their associated spatial correlation in DA GEO and GIS software has been discussed. The data includes required maps and information about the green space of Bonab city.  Totally, the information of green space parcels for 13 districts of the city stored into a database. Accordingly, in order to analyze the spatial distribution of green spaces in urban neighbourhoods, the capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), especially spatial correlation, Moran indices, and G statistic, are used. The findings show that based on the Moran index of 0.89, which represents the spatial distribution pattern of the cluster with a high concentration, green spaces in neighbourhoods are adjacent to each other. By comprising this with Moran coefficient it can be said that the situation is equitable distribution of green areas. Then, a general G statistic value equals to 0 and Z value equals to 5.81 represents the hot cluster density. Thus, the Moran two-variable correlation analysis showed no relationship between population density and the pattern of green spaces in Bonab city.
: GIS, Green Space, Bonab City, Moran Two-Variable Correlation, Spatial Correlation, General Statistic.