Special Issue 2014

Table of Content, Special Issue 2014

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Physical – Spatial Analysis of Yasuj City for the Purpose of Urban Environment Sustainability

Original Article, S1
Shamaei A, Hossienpour SS

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(S): 01-06. 2014

ABSTRACT: The present study seeks to identify and study the physical-spatial structure condition of Yasuj city and the effective factors on the emergence and evolution of the spatial structure of this city for obtaining a sustainable urban environment. The method used in this paper is descriptive – analytical method and the Shannon entropy, Holdern and interquartile distribution models have been used as well. The obtained results indicate that the city population during the last 40 year has increased about 22 times and also the area of the city in this period have become approximately 30 times. This process has caused the farming land to be turned into residential land and have caused some environmental problems. Based on the Shannon entropy model during 1996 – 2006 the city growth pattern is an ugly urban growth. Based on Holdern model 90.8% of the physical growth of the city during 1976 – 2006 is related to population growth and 9.2% of it is related to horizontal and spiral growth of the city. Based on interquartile distribution model around 48% of the population are living in more than 38% of the area of the city which indicates to the Uneven spatial distribution of the city. Considering the result of the research it is determined that the physical – spatial development of Yasuj city is not proportional with urban sustainability and that we recommend continuous expansion sector model, reduction in the size of the divided lots as well as consistent growth of other land uses with residential land use. In addition, sustainable city through participatory decision-making in designing cities will reduce the consumption of energy, creates a sustainable economy as well as a healthier environment, more comprehensive justice and a better quality life and can make possible sustainable urban development at a local level.
Keywords: Urban Sustainability, Shannon Entropy Model, Holdern Model, Interquartile Distribution Model, Yasuj City


Applying Environmental Design Approach (CPTED) to Improve Security in Urban Worn Out Texture; Case Study: Worn Out Texture of Urmia Downtown

Original Article, S2
Ahmadi B, Afrouz M, Hashemi SM.

J. Civil Eng. Urban. 4(S):
07-14 2014

ABSTRACT: Most crime occurs when the perpetrator finds an appropriate opportunity; the opportunities may be due to a factor or a combination of several factors. In many cases, the term of opportunity to commit crime is used with secure together. Security is one of the main sustainable factors of today’s communities, without stability and security, there is no possibility of growth and development for any community and positive achievements will be replaced by negative ones. One of physical solutions to increasing security is crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED), which is currently the most efficient solution to supply physical security through reducing criminal opportunities in urban areas. Worn out textures in cities due to the specific physical and activity characteristics are considered as one of the main crime rise centres. In this study, the factors affecting insecurity and creating criminal opportunities of worn out texture of Urmia downtown have been studied. The research method is analytical-descriptive and the tool of library studies, survey and open questionnaires has been used to collect required data. The research result shows that due to insecurity reasons in the scope of the study, the principles of CPTED approach can be effective in reducing the rate of insecurity. To this end, strategies for enhancing security in the study area using environmental design approach would be proposed at the end.
Keywords: Security, Crime Rise, Worn Out Texture, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), Worn Out Texture of Urmia Downtown


The Examination of Housing Index and Status of Residence in Informal Settlements and Providing their Bookkeeping Strategies (Caste Study: Allahabad Region of Kerman, Iran)

Original Article, S3
Alipour Moghaddam F, Khochak Khoshnevis AM.

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
15-22. 2014

ABSTRACT: Like other countries, informal settlements in Iran are a growing phenomenon which causes cities to be faced with serious issues. Kerman has also been faced with informal settlements and Allahabad region is one of the informal settlements. The research method is descriptive-analysis and data collection technique is based on library researches and field studies. The results of field studies in Allahabad indicate that the region is physically faced with serious irregularities in construction, short-lived and second-hand materials, buildings without construction permit, low distance to the downtown streets, far distance of children’s training centres from the region. The region, also, is struggling with poor hygiene, lack of medical facilities and services, high statistics of addiction and unemployment, incomes below the poverty line and high illiteracy. The people are ready to participate in improvement programs for their residence environment, hence, the empowerment strategy is considered to achieve this goal. The aim of current study is to identify the physical status, situation and indexes of housing in the region in order to recognize the region’s potentials through exact examinations and SWAT technique and finally to provide solutions such as creating environments for enhancing individual skills and increasing to decrease social-physical damage and increase quality of life.  
Keywords: Informal Settlements, Physical Status, Empowerment, Increase Quality Residency, Allahabad Region, Kerman


Reconsideration of Sustainable Architecture and Identity in Contemporary Architecture (Case Study: Tagh Bostan Kermanshah, Iran)

Original Article, S4
Alizadeh M, Mehdi Nezhad J.

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
23-30. 2014

ABSTRACT: Contemporary Iranian architecture is still caught in a dilemma between a cursory review of a nostalgic look at the past and beguiling ostentations of the western patterns and models. Iranian architecture has faced a myriad of challenges to achieve its national fundamental essence.  Past Iranian architecture which has long achieved a sustainable and special position by resorting to creativity and unique features, nowadays has distanced from reality and has found an artificial and inferior status due to the encounter with various phenomena such as exploitation policies and affluence of oil wealth without necessary management backgrounds and also obsession with the superficial manifestations of the western industrialized civilization.  The present paper attempts to investigate the typology of identity and the issue of identity in contemporary Iranian sustainable architecture, then to analyze this issue in Tagh Bostan in Kermanshah city, and finally to consider the identity crisis in Iran and the world.
Keywords: Identity, Architecture, Sustainable Development, Crisis, Tagh Bostan


Numerical Analysis of Natural Ventilation in Double Skin Facades to Feasibility of Reducing the Use of Air Conditioning Systems in winter

Original Article, S5
Afshinmehr V, Aref F, Mousavimehr SM.

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
31-34. 2014

ABSTRACT: Nowadays implementation of natural ventilation is one of the essentials considered when designing buildings to provide comfort for the residents. Taking advantage of natural ventilation reduces the need and the irregular use of HVACs in buildings. In doing so, Dual Skin Facades allows a natural air conditioning while controlling noise, wind and rain. A dual skin can offer other advantages in protecting the building from the elements such as changes in climate. It allows the residents to benefit from their open windows without being exposed to the hazards of single layer structural wall. Dual Skin Facades also provides the ability to adjust and to compensate for heat, cold, light, wind, and the exterior noise in a way that result in comfort for the residents without energy wastes. The article below is to conduct an analysis of natural air conditioning in different Dual Skin Façade systems and a numerical analysis of double skin facades in “Hot and Arid” climate of Iran and it is to benefit from natural air conditioning in winter. In doing so, we will rise to better option and higher preference with compare the two models of air ventilation in double skin façade's air gap. 
Keywords: Dual Skin Façade, Hot Arid Climate, Natural Air Conditioning.


The Role of Sustainable Development in Child-Friendly Communities to Improve Children’s Health and Well-Being (Case Study: Zanjan City, Iran)

Original Article, S6
Bagheri M, Safavi S.

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
35-40. 2014

ABSTRACT: Sustainable development has an important role in creating children-friendly communities especially on designing neighborhood open spaces to improve the children’s health and wellbeing. This paper explores the children and their parents’ ideas about the quality of residential environments with focus on a new neighborhood in Zanjan city, Iran. The research method is based on the analysis of the neighborhood open space design by observing of the children behavior and recording the parents’ ideas.   Random sample parents on the neighborhood were answered the qualitative questions and the children were asked to paint their cognitive maps and models about ideal healthy neighborhood. The results of the study show that natural characteristics of community design, social contacts of the children and parents with neighbors ,environmental safety and security and physical activity in playgrounds have the main  role in making  child-friendly communities. Using sustainable design paradigm can improve the children’s physical health and psychological wellbeing.
Keywords: Sustainable Design, Child-Friendly Community, Health and Wellbeing


Influence of Persian Garden as Urban Green Spaces on Promotion of Social Interactions Citizens; Case Study: Garden Chehel Sotun (Mellat Park) of Behshahr City, Iran

Original Article, S7
Elyasi Gorji F
, M Rezaee, Elyasi Gorji A
J. Civil Eng. Urban. 4
41-47. 2014

ABSTRACT: Green space is one of the main pillars in urban and effects on the quality of the urban landscape, and improving the levels of social, cultural and health interactions of the citizens. Persian garden is the best sample of old urban green space and one of the first effective instances in urban landscape. Pay attention to effect of green space in quality of social life, in many modern cities, the parks and gardens has designed and constructed that aren’t responsive for social needs, improvement of communications and the social relations of citizens. This matter appears because of imitation form western countries pattern and inattention to cultural, sociological and psychological needs. Chehel-Sotoun Garden has constructed in 1612 by orders of Shah-Abbas in Behshahr, Mazandaran state. The garden has been used as green space and the city's main park. In this research, that been developed based on descriptive procedure, the elements of a urban green space has investigated and the characteristics of Chehel-Sotoun Garden as an active and vibrant Persian Garden and distinguished form other public green spaces has been examined as an effective factor in improvement the levels of social interactions of citizens. The results of research indicates that the Persian Garden is an efficient green space in improvement of public social interactions, enhancing of efficiency of an urban green space arises the life quality and specially, social interaction level so that can be said the public social interactions cannot be developed in an unfavorable green space and the Persian Garden characteristics are standards for design of urban green space that is appropriate for social and cultural needs.
Keywords: Social Interactions, Persian Garden, Park, Green Space, Urban


Management Evaluation of Residues Separation of Origin by Planning Method on Municipality in Tehran (Case Study: Zone 16), Iran

Original Article, S8
Eraghi M, Saidi Rezvani N.

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
48-56. 2014

ABSTRACT: The main parts of residues strategy in every country is including politic and planning in the case of different manage mental elements such as culture and training reserving systems collecting carrying and bury the materials especially cases such as less production (minimization) and problem that is always important which it means recovered things from production origin. It should be considered as an appropriate technology with regard to biological situation in every country. This research also is about the amount of citizen's participation on residues Separation from origin and monumental planning to separate the residues from origin on zone 16. The used method in this research is measurement (quality and quantity kind) and documentary study (document view on progressive work on zone 16). As it has shown in this search statistical cases are included residential citizens on the zone. Case volume also with regard to the earned number from courante formula is about 384 that to prevent eventual errors it used number 400. Sampling was regular accidentally. In this research it was studied the amount of citizens participation role of training on citizens in from people and take in to account the propagandas and possibilities from managers side to encourage citizens participate to separate residues from origin as research hypothesis. Everything hypothesis in the search were confirmed. Finally the search has shown solutions for more participation of citizens and manages mental planning to have progress on residues separation.
Keywords: Residue, Management of Residual Materials, Urban Planning, Stable Development on City, Participation of Citizens


Using Urban Revitalization Approaches in Areas Afflicted by Urban Decline-Case Study: District of Sang-e-Siah, Shiraz, Iran

Original Article, S9
Eshtiaghi A., Mofidi Shemirani M.

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
57-64. 2014

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to compile goals, approaches, and policies suited to the Sang-e-Siah slum for the purpose of realizing urban revitalization program. In this study, primary elements of urban revitalization planning were first considered by studying relevant world literature and each one’s status was explained. Then external and internal factors affecting the area under study were measured via evaluation matrices and finally, possible approaches were compiled by comparing external and internal factors in matrices of threats, opportunities, and pros and cons. According to the aim, this study attempts, through a quantitative-qualitative approach and by using methods like library researches, surveys, questionnaire, reports of upper-hand plans, and comparison of their pros and cons, as well as scrutinizing intervened limits, to determine early approaches according to physical and social criteria on the one hand and economical estimations on the other hand and ultimately, define strategic priorities  by summarizing results of physical, social, and economical evaluation. Defined criteria could be used generally as guidelines for defining renovation and rehabilitation priorities in eroded historical textures. This study yields in a framework for prioritizing acceptable approaches in urban revitalization program of the Sang-e-Siah district.
Keywords: Urban Decline, Historical Texture, Urban Revitalization Planning, Participation, District of Sang-E-Siah


Identifying Urban Indefensible Spaces and Proposing a Design-Oriented Solution using the Principles of the Approach (CPTED); Case Study on Bagh Shater Neighborhood of Tehran, Iran


Original Article, S10
Farash Khiabani M, Amoie R.

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
65-73. 2014

ABSTRACT: Today, with the increasing trend of urbanization, city expansion followed by social troubles has led to an emphasis on issues such as citizens’ security in urban space with respect to urban planning and design. To this end, the discussions in the form of new theories, the physical characteristics of space and its effect on crime rate have been always challenged. In this regard, we can refer to the approach CPTED which seeks to reduce the rate of crime in space by proposing a solution in the field of design. The aim of the study is to identify urban unsafe and indefensible spaces as well as proposing a design-oriented solution in order to reduce the problems within the area of Bagh Shater Neighborhood as the case study. The method of doing the research is a synthesized one; that is to say, having reviewed the views of the theorists of Urban Science and Urban Sociology, e.g. Oskar Newman Jean Jacobs et al, the design-focused approach, CPTED, was selected. Then the factors and the mentioned elements of the approach were served to how to recognize insecure and indefensible spaces; namely natural surveillance, access, natural areas, etc. The identification of indefensible sites has been made given the mentioned principles of the selected approach using an expert interpretation and questionnaire completion on the part of the residents of Bagh Shater. After extracting the causes of insecurities and presenting unsafe sites, the spaces have been shown on the map GIS of the neighborhood. In the end, the design –focused suggestions are to be proposed in order to make the space defensible and reduce insecurity in the form of a design-oriented solution using CPTED approach (the principle governing urban design and planning with a view to preventing crime, i.e. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design).
Keywords: Indefensible Space, Security, CPTED Principle


Analysis of Ecological Problems in one of the Cities of Isfahan Named Segzi with the Focus on the Executive Solutions

Original Article, S11
Fotoohi Z, Mokhtari Malek Abadi R, Haji Aghjoori Kashi Sh, Molaei Sh.

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
74-79. 2014

ABSTRACT: One of the most important issues that city managers are faced with is the issue of waste management. Solid waste management is generation, collection, sorting, recycling, compost and land filling of the waste. This process isn’t qualified and efficient enough in all cities in Iran. This can lead to lots of problems and issues itself. In this research, the case of one of the cities located in Isfahan named "Segzi "is studied that is located in the desert and eastern region of Isfahan. The pollution in this area has been increased subject to the weather conditions such as winds associated with dust. Old plaster and brick kilns, also increase the contamination of the area. This research was based on practical objectives and had a case-descriptive nature. So the objective of the article was the detection of ecological issues of the city of Segzi and presentation of solution and suggestions in order to improve the area status using the SWOT analysis method.
Keywords: Waste, Recycling, The City Segzi, Contamination, SWOT Analysis Method


An Investigation on Sustainable Development of Yasuj Downtown, using Artificial Neural Network Mode

Original Article, S12
Sasanpoor F, M Hajizadeh, P Khaledi, Asghar Adinevand

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(S): 80-88. 2014

ABSTRACT: Undoubtedly, city centres, are the most important platform for various activities consistent with the city. As a result, a new attention must be paid to these spaces (urban centres) so as based on sustainable development approach, a suitable place for citizens, especially those living in urban core neighbourhoods, be created. This paper along with explaining the position of city centre in Yasuj, tries to codify and analyse of land use areas. The present paper reviews the central areas of Yasuj based on sustainable development approach and also has a comparative compares between these areas with each other using a model of artificial neural networks, and using this model in ARC/GIS tries to predict the selected sustainable development indicators in the addressed area.
Keywords: City Centre, Sustainable Development, Neural Network, Central Area’s Land Use, ARC/GIS


Evaluation of Urban Green Spaces and their Impact on Living Quality of Citizens (Case Study: Nehbandan City, Iran)

Original Article, S13
Kiani A, Javadiyan M, Pasban V.

J. Civil Eng. Urban. 4(S):
89-95. 2014

ABSTRACT: Nowadays, due to exacerbation of the effects of urban development and increasing urban land use changes, urban green space is so interesting for researchers and the related organizations that it is considered as an indicator of the development in societies. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the city parks of Nehbandan to investigate the effects of green spaces in cities on life quality improvement of citizens. The descriptive- analytic research approach was based on library studies, documentation, and field reviews done through direct investigation of the city parks and receiving the viewpoints of experts and citizens (visitors to the parks). Ultimately, the gathered data and information were assessed and analyzed. The results suggest that green spaces within the city of Nehbandan have social, economic and ecological efficiency among which their environmental function or ecological productivity is the most important effect of these spaces making the citizens' quality of life more satisfactory through accessing to suitable green spaces.  About % 50 of interviewees paid attention to this issue and they believed the availability of green spaces within the city can lead to reduction of environmental pollutants and elevation of the citizens’ lifestyle. Moreover, based on their responses to the questionnaire, factors such as having recreation and leisure, being away from problems, enjoying life and refreshment respectively allocated % 60, % 25, % 10, and % 5.
Urban Green Space; The Citizens; Quality of Life; Nehbandan


Feasibility of City Strategic Planning with Approach of CDS; Case Study: Eslamshahr, Iran

Original Article, S14
Rafieian M., Mohammadi M., Mirzakhalili M.

J. Civil Eng. Urban. 4(S):
96-104. 2014

ABSTRACT: Due to the increasing growth of cities, lack of necessary resources and time for responding to increasing needs of citizens, urban management has encountered a challenge that it cannot be tackled except in the framework of new solutions of planning. The CDS; City Development Strategy, as one of the newest planning approaches has been suggested in 1999 for tackle this problem. Eslamshahr in Tehran province is one of the new towns where a large number of immigrant populations have settled due to the proximity to Tehran city, lots of job places and cheapness of lands. Increasing population growth due to immigration, economic, social and administrative dependence to Tehran city and many other problems are among challenges that Eslamshahr encounter.  The aim of this research is to study the feasibility of CDS approach in Eslamshahr city; by asking the question that whether Eslamshahr has the required capacities for applying CDS or not? To do so, the qualitative- descriptive method has been used a selection of written resources is used as references. AHP technique has been used in order to give weight and determine priority of selected criteria and analyzed matrixes and also definition and evaluation of situation in the strategic planning. Lack and weakness of management infrastructures particularly regarding attraction of the beneficiary participation including citizens and also weakness of cultural and social infrastructures in Eslamshahr city and the necessity of its providing and preparing for entrance of Eslamshahr in the cycle of benefiting CDS have been among the results of the present research.
Keywords: City Development Strategy, Participation, Feasibility Study, Urban Development Planning, Eslamshahr


Environmental Effects of Landfill Sites on Biologic Environment; Case Study: Tehran City of Iran

Original Article, S15
Moradi M, Moarab M.

J. Civil Eng. Urban. 4(S):
105-108. 2014

ABSTRACT: Population growth and increasing diversity of human needs lead to increasing production of waste. Increasing waste production and reducing waste landfill in Kahrizak reveal Tehran's need to determine the location of landfill waste more than before. To construct a landfill according to Environment High Council, a report on the environmental impact assessment in feasibility and location stage must be prepared. Therefore, Tehran Municipality has selected a sanitary waste landfill with an area of 1000 hectares in Hassan Abad – Hooshang Abad Road, Ray in Tehran province. This area is located in hydrologic units of Zarand - Save - Zaviyeh and 10 kilometres far away from Shoor River (Soroud). The soil of area is Bazarak soil. Flora and fauna, including endemic species that have been detected in field operation. Rare and Endangered Plants in and around of the project site are 12 species. Mentor 2001 is used to evaluate the proposed landfill. By using the mentioned method, the effects of each stage of the construction and operation have been predicted based on activities matrix and influences. Results indicate that the soil operation have the greatest effect on biological environment. Terrestrial ecosystem and rare species of plants have the most long-term influence in construction phase and the destruction of them is inevitable. The permanent, definite and direct negative effects of proposed landfill operation create 75.91% of total impacts.
Keywords: Environmental Impact Assessment, Proposed Landfill Site, Biological Environment of Ecosystems, Water Pollution


Designing Urban Spaces and Furniture for Urban Sustainability with an Emphasis on the Pavement; Case Study: the Area of Abresan Crossroad to Shahid Beheshti Intersection (Tabriz, Iran)

Original Article, S16
Afsari R, Mousavi SR, Aghayari Z, Shiripour M, Bakhshi V.

J. Civil Eng. Urban. 4(S):
109-113. 2014

ABSTRACT: The urban landscape is one of the most important visual forms that reflect the characteristics of a city. One of the most important components in the design of spaces is their landscaping and flooring that explaining the context of urban space and all of its elements, and in this way, it has the power of major influence on the perception of consumers’ space behaviour. Bio complex residents are commuting on the sidewalks of the city several times daily to access and work; however, pedestrians should not encounter a mental problem and distress when commuting. Due to the importance of issue, the present study is assigned to the paving or sidewalk in Tabriz from Abresan up to Shahid Beheshti intersection. The area paving has not been made according to the paving standards, has not sufficient strength and will not be able to provide its particular performance for the pedestrians, and due to obstacles on the way that block pedestrians, disabled people would also be in trouble. Research methodology in this area has been based on first-hand field and documents studies and to carry out analyses, SPSS and Excel software has been used.
Keywords: Sidewalks, Pedestrians, Access, Standard, Strength, Material, Performance, Disabled People.


Biking Roads Locationality Utilitarian Criteria Assessment and Measurement through Inversion Hierarchical Weight Process; Case Study: Kerman City, Iran

Original Article, S17
Moosavi Nadoshan SM, Siaami Q.

J. Civil Eng. Urban. 4(S):
114-120. 2014

ABSTRACT: The increasing growth of urbanization, urban population, and consequently an increase in traffic and the number of intercity commuters who use motor vehicles to commute has caused lots of problems for the transportation system. One of the plans by whose proper implementation traffic and urban transportation systems could be calmed down considerably is the development of human-oriented transportation (walking and biking), so, in this research, we tried to measure and analyze how suitable different routes in Kerman City are for the development of such a transportation system with its own network of passages. The current research aimed to propose a proper method to measure and study the potential and suitability of biking routes in Kerman for the kind of transportation system mentioned above. In order to analyze and rate the proposed routes within Kerman City, four international parameters were measured for each route. Based on our findings, the BCI and CBF parameters had the highest and lowest impact factors, respectively. Also, from among the ten proposed routes, Jomhouri Boulevard and Shahab Street had the highest qualitative level and Daneshgah Boulevard the lowest. According to these results, it could be concluded that the rate of trailers traffic, and the construction rate and width of passages has a considerable impact on the quality of the passages which are designed for biking.
Keywords: Biking Feasibility Study Indices, Bicycles Transportation Network, Navigating Template, Inversion Hierarchical Weight Process


Feasibility of the Possible Patterns of Intervention in the Distressed Fabric; Case Study: A Part of Qom City of Iran in Central Sub-Area

Original Article, S18
Mostaghim M, Masoud M.

J. Civil Eng. Urban. 4(S):
121-132. 2014

ABSTRACT: It is long time that the subject of distressed and decayed areas has attracted the attention of the public organizations and experts of urbanism and architecture in different countries. Rehabilitation, renovation and restoration are different forms of intervention in the distressed fabric each of which has been implemented with different approaches in different countries worldwide. The applied approaches (including re-adjustment of the land for implementing urban development plans, compulsory acquisition, voluntarily methods such as the persuasive aggregations and density) have their own problems. In many cases, these problems have led to stopping the projects in their initial phase. This applied research is based on the qualitative and quantitative approaches and uses a comprehensive perspective relying on the available solutions and history of research using descriptive-analytical method and secondary data. In analyzing the data and case study, we use library-field methods based on the questionnaire and face-to-face interviews. Statistical population of the research includes the residents of a part of the distressed area in 1st municipal district of Qom city. This article attempts to explain the current proposed approaches (organization, protection, and constructive and fundamental interventions) studies the actions that have been done in relation to the distressed areas of the mentioned region in Qom city. Finally we will state the actions needed in each approach considering different dimensions of the distressed area. The findings of the research show that any feasible solution has to pay enough attention to the financial aspects, mental motivations of the residents, and the participation of the people and government.
Keywords: Distressed Fabric, Feasibility Study, Qom, Rehabilitation, Renovation, Restoration


Housing Sustainability in Tehran’s Detailed Plan for Distressed Areas (Case Study: Mazaheri Neighborhood in Tehran 15th Municipal District, Iran)

Original Article, S19
Mostaghim M.

J. Civil Eng. Urban. 4(S):
133-144. 2014

ABSTRACT: House is one of the primary and basic needs of any family in all societies. In most countries (including Iran) the governments are responsible for providing the house for their citizens. An important aspect in all housing plans is to consider the inability of mid- and low-income families in providing their own needed house independent of the government’s help and support. Accordingly, this research aims to find a solution for the following question: to what extent the suggested housing plans in Tehran distressed areas help fulfilling the sustainability of the houses? The methodology of the research is descriptive-analytical. In this regard we first study and define the concept of housing sustainability and its different aspects through library method to extract the factors of the house sustainability. Then we identify these factors in the distressed fabric of Mazaheri neighborhood in Tehran’s 15th municipal district. Then we compare the situation of the housing in the neighborhood against the suggested plans by the government, specifically Tehran’s Detailed Plan. Finally, we evaluate the scale of housing sustainability in the mentioned detailed plan using goal achievement matrix. The results of this research show that the suggested housing plans in the Tehran’s Detailed Housing Plan has been formulated without paying enough attention to the sustainability. Although this plan relatively leads to the improvement of the physical situation, but it fails to fulfill the expected sustainability. Moreover, among all different aspects of the housing sustainability, we found that the socio-cultural dimension has been neglected more than the other aspects of sustainability.
Keywords: Distressed Fabric, Housing Environmental Sustainability, Housing Economic Sustainability, Housing Socio-Cultural Sustainability, Housing Physical Sustainability


The Impact of Geographical Components on the Spatial Expansion of Cities using the SWOT Model; Case Study of District 22 Tehran, Iran

Original Article, S20
Ranjbar F.

J. Civil Eng. Urban. 4(S):
145-152. 2014

ABSTRACT: The present study has focused on identifying the geographical components, proper efficiency of the components in order to appropriate Spatial Development and to prevent probable risks. This research is a part of fundamental and functional researches and step in line with scientific analyses and in order to collect information therein, the approach of documents and records study, theses, books and publications, websites, statistics papers, different maps and photographs have been used, and in order to information analysis the SWOT model is used. Because of having geographical components such as favorable climate, suitable slope and topography, and the dominant wind direction of west to east, extensive wasteland and due to the development plan of network traffic in Tehran, District 22 will attract the future population of the city with more aggressively. Research findings indicate that by organizing and utilizing the power and capability of geographic components affecting the region, spatial expansion of the region can be directed, and further uncontrolled expansion can be controlled and by monitoring the area constructions related to lands located in watercourse and fault crossing zones, future directions of spatial development of the region can be determined.
Keywords: Spatial Development, Geographical Components, SWOT Model, District 22, Efficiency