Volume 4 : Issue 3, May 2014

Table of Content, 25 May 2014

Publisher Item Identifier (pii) / Research Title /
Graphical Abstract
Article Information /

pii: S225204301400033-4

Heave Behavior of Granular Pile Anchor-Foundation (GPA-Foundation) System in Expansive Soil


Original Article, D33
Ibrahim S.F., Aljorany A.N. and Aladly A.I.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 213-222. 2014

ABSTRACT: Granular Pile Anchor (GPA) is one of the innovative foundation techniques, devised for mitigating heave of footing resulting from the expansive soils. This research attempts to study the heave behavior of (GPA-Foundation System) in expansive soil. Laboratory tests have been conducted on an experimental model in addition to a series of numerical modelling and analysis using the finite element package PLAXIS software. The effects of different parameters, such as (GPA)length (L) and diameter (D), footing diameter (Df), expansive clay layer thickness (H) and presence of non-expansive clay are studied. The results proved the efficiency of GPA in reducing the heave of expansive soil and showed that the heave can be reduced with increasing length and diameter of GPA. The heave of (GPA-Foundation System) is controlled by three independent variables these are (L/D) ratio, (L/H) ratio and (Df/D) ratio. The heave can be reduced by up to (38 %) when (GPA) is embedded in expansive soil layer at (L/H=1) and reduced by about (90 %) when GPA is embedded in expansive soil and extended to non-expansive clay (stable zone) at (L/H=2) at the same diameter of GPA and footing. An equation (mathematical mode1) was obtained by using the computer package (SPSS 17.0) for statistical analysis based on the results of finite element analysis relating the maximum heave of (GPA-Foundation System) as a function of the above mentioned three independent variables with coefficient of regression of (R2 = 92.3 %).
Expansive Soil; Sand; Heave; Granular Pile Anchor (GPA); Foundation; PLAXIS; Finite Element.


pii: S225204301400034-4

Probabilistic Response Evaluation of Plan-Irregular Buildings Subjected to Bi-directional Seismic Loading


Original Article, D34
Manie S, Moghadam AS, Ghafory-Ashtiany M.
J. Civil Eng. Urban. 4(3): 223-232. 2014

ABSTRACT: The present paper aim at evaluating the response of three-dimensional buildings with in-plan unidirectional mass irregularities subjected to bi-directional seismic loading. The study is carried out in a probabilistic frame-work considering the response of the structural models at their near-collapse nonlinear state of response. To this end, three-dimensional 3 and 6-story reinforced concrete building structures with unidirectional mass eccentricities equal to 0% (symmetrical), 10%, 20% and 30%, were subjected to extensive nonlinear incremental dynamic analyses (IDA) utilizing degrading hysteretic models under a set of far-field two-component ground motions records. The collapse-level intensities of each model under all records were, then, assessed using standard uni-variate as well as bi-variate statistical and probabilistic analysis procedures. Results demonstrated that remarkable differences exist between behavior of regular and irregular buildings in terms of median collapse-level spectral intensities, the corresponding coefficients of variation, and the properties of the associated probability density and cumulative density functions (PDFs and CDFs). The paper, also, introduces the “fragility surface” concept as an alternative to conventional fragility curves for collapse behavior assessment of three-dimensional structures.
Keywords: Torsional Buildings, Probabilistic, Collapse, Plan Irregularity, Low-Rise Buildings.


pii: S225204301400035-4

Investigation and Measurement of Heavy Metals Amount (As, Pb, Cd, Hg) within Rivers Estuaries Located in the West Side of Urmia Lake


Original Article, D35
Esmat Saatloo SJ, Esmat Saatlo M, Siosemarde M, Merufinia E.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 233-238. 2014

ABSTRACT: The ecosystem of Urmia Lake is almost close ended and the water of rains and rivers play an important role in Biological activities of this lake. It is worth stating that the national park of Urmia Lake is almost one of the rare one in world class, since the watery environment of this park is so salty and the only living being which could survive in this lake is named Artemia. Since this park has special natural condition and various ilks of ecosystems, it can be considered one of best domicile for numerous kinds of birds and prominent national park of Iran. Although for now, the West Azerbaijan province is not among the geographical regions of Iran that lead to production of pollution and the extension of industrial activities in this region still do not pollute the watery regions, but the amount of pollution in this area is moving toward pick points and if no measurement is taken in order to control the industrial activities and other polluters, the water source of this province will face with a serious ecological crisis. The rivers that flow into the Urmia Lake have a mineral load, since the urban, agriculture and rural sewage pour into these rivers. This survey aims at identifying the amount of pollution, polluters, self-purification capacity of rivers and offering a solution for resolving the pollution issue, especially when the water level of Urmia Lake is decreased, which lead us to consider polluters and their effects.
Keywords: Urmia Lake, Ecosystem, Sewage, Heavy Metals, Artemia, Environment.


pii: S225204301400036-4

Structural Identification of Bridges (Case Study: Mazandaran, Iran)


Original Article, D36
MehdiNezhad M. R., AmirKolaee E., Nikbakht H., GholiPour PateRoudi H.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 239-244. 2014

ABSTRACT: Throughout more thousand years of human civilization, bridge and bridge architecture had indicated the creativity, initiative and ingenuity of human and his understanding and feeling about architect, resistance, beauty, symmetry, harmony and other values were always under the judgment of next generations. Across history, bridge was not just a tool to connect two areas but it was a sample of ability, ingenuity, creativity and the skill of human. The connection between two parts was a source of inspiration, a new idea was formed, new methods were created and new bridges were constructed. 363 historical bridges indicate the importance of this structure among different Iranian historical architecture works. Bridge building was flourished simultaneously by creating more connection between cities and commercial centers. Iranian architecture history quoted the building of several bridges which nowadays there is no any sign of them. The bridges were always exposed to rivers overflowing and natural erosion. Probably there is no such dependency between structure and architecture in other kind of constructions. In fact, the bridge architecture is a combination of structures which are influenced by river bed, ground strength and amount of water across it.
Keywords: Bridge Architecture, Design Method, Material Type, Constructing Technique, Natural Factors.


pii: S225204301400037-4

Estimations of Sediments in Mahabad Dam Using Artificial Neural Networks and Comparing the Results with Hydrometer Approach


Original Article, D37
Khezri H, Merufinia E.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 245-250. 2014

ABSTRACT: A deposition phenomenon is considered as one of the hydrometer processes which have ability to influence the most of the hydraulic structures and facility constructions. The exact assessment of the deposition of the rivers plays an important  role not only in the management of the water sources, but also it is deemed that this factor also may have an influence  on the designing, fabricating and planning phase of the utilization of Hydraulic Structures. In this survey, Neural Networks along with appropriate structure and self-training system is used as one of the methods of the estimating the amount of the sediments related to the Mahabad barrier, also the results of this survey are compared with the result of the hydrometer method. To this end, the discharge statistics of the water and sediments in two Cawter hydrometer station and Baitas village within the basin of Mahabad Dam catchment is investigated separately and at the end the estimation of the sediment load is compared and surveyed respectively by using neural networks in the Nero solution software via the multi-layer model of the Perceptron and the prevalent hydrometer approach. The results point out that the multi-layer networks in prognosticating a measure of the sediments is superior to hydrometer method.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Hydrometer Method, Nero solution, Sediments.


pii: S225204301400038-4

Usage Alteration of the Nazlu-Chay River of Iran due to Excessive Exploit of Its Material Includes Sand and Gravel in the Lake Urmia Catchment


Original Article, D38
Esmat Saatloo M, Esmat Saatloo J, Merufinia E, Siosemarde M.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 251-255. 2014

ABSTRACT: From Ancient times rivers were so essential for human beings and they had a major role in the formation of societies and civilizations. Construction of dams, pollution due to the sewage vacating and excessive exploit of sand and gravel located within the kip of the river are the main factors which affected the environment. These affections are so obvious and since there was no strict control over the exploit operations, the ecosystem is ruined severely. According to the scope investigations linked to the exploit of sand and gravel most of the exploitations are done from the bottom scope of river. These exploitations had led to severe destruction of solid quality, hydrology system of river and brutes.  It is worth to point out that the drawbacks of these exploitations is not only limited to the scope of river but also we can see ruins traces within beach scope and other scopes of the river. Some direct influence of exploits includes: river hydraulic alteration, sediment place and river scope morphology.
Keywords: Environmental on sequences, River ecology, Sand and Gravel exploit


pii: S225204301400039-4

3D Numerical Simulation to Consider the Effects of EPB Tunneling on the Existing Support System


Original Article, D39

Bagherpour R., Mahdevari S.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 256-260. 2014

ABSTRACT: The development of transportation in the large cities needs some new tunnels to be designed and constructed nearby existing tunnels. In this study, the adverse effects of excavation a subway tunnel using an Earth Pressure Balance (EPB) shield, under a sewage tunnel have been investigated. Both the relative position of the tunnels and the excavation procedure of the new tunnel affect the ground movements and existing tunnel lining. Hence, the effects of shield operation parameters such as the face pressure, grout pressure and overcut between the shield skin and the surrounding soil are studied using a 3D finite difference numerical simulation. In accordance with the results, the largest permanent interaction effects occurred at the crown of sewage tunnel. Furthermore, excavation of subway tunnel affects the support system of existing tunnel in the longitudinal section more than cross section. In addition, the most portion of support deformation takes place when the ground moves into the overcut space. However, these adverse effects decrease significantly by increasing the face pressure, grout pressure and Bentonite injection into the steering gap between the shield skin and the surrounding soil especially when the pressure of that is more than 3 bar. Due to EPB tunnelling, the internal forces variations in the longitudinal section of sewage tunnel are more than circumferential ones. 
Keywords: EPB Shield, 3D Numerical Modeling, Tunnel Interaction


pii: S225204301400040-4

Landfill Site Selection for Babol Using Fuzzy logic Method


Original Article, D40
Rezazadeh M, Sadati Seyedmahalleh E, Sadati Seyedmahalleh E, Golbabaei Kootenaei F, Mehrdadi N.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 261-265. 2014

ABSTRACT: Landfill is one of the oldest and most widely used methods of waste management. Due to the special geographical and climatic condition of the northern province of Iran using this method is faced of many challenges. Several parameters are considered in determining the appropriate location for landfill. The goal of this study was to determine the best location for the landfill of Babol in north of Iran. The parameters that important in finding the location for landfill are such as: Groundwater level, distance from surface water sources, faults, slope, soil and rock type, distance from cities and aggregation centers, and distance from forest and roads. For understanding and finding knowledge about these parameters the topographic maps, geology, soil science and hydrology are used. In this study the range of effective parameters of this subject was determined, and analyzed with both Boolean and Fuzzy logic methods. This study indicates that Kardijkola has the most suitable conditions and the worst place for landfill is Ahangarkola and Kashikola. Indeed this study is based on the field that do not have any of condition for choosing are removed in first step (Initial selection) and afterwards between the remaining option, the option that have best condition according to weight was given is chosen as the final location of the landfill. 
Keywords: Solid waste management, Site, Babol, Boolean logic Method, Kardijkola.


pii: S225204301400041-4

Development of Simulation-Optimization Model for Stormwater Treatment Measure Optimization (Case Study: Gold Coast City, Australia)


Original Article, D41
Montaseri M, Afshar MH., Haddad O.B.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 266-273. 2014

ABSTRACT: Urbanization and urban development builds large amounts of impervious areas, stopping the infiltrating of rainfall into soil process and consequently, requiring of the construction of large stormwater treatment measures. A new tendency in storm water management endorses ‘source control’ whereby small distributed water sensitive urban design systems are built throughout the subdivision to alleviate the effects of land use changes, and protect downstream water quality. Source control practices include use of water sensitive urban design practices like rainwater Tanks, vegetated swales, bio-retention systems, infiltration basins, and constructed wetlands in order to disconnect impervious areas from each other. These elements have different roles and costs. This paper presents a rule based method, to reduce the costs of urban stormwater management. For this purpose, two simulation and optimization model are linked together in the MatLab integrated development environment. Linking the simulation model (MUSIC) and the optimization model (Genetic Algorithm), allowed this simulation and optimization model (MUSIC-GA) to minimize the costs of various treatment devices. Results of usage of MUSIC-GA model on optimizing of urban stormwater treatment systems in about 1.7 hectares residential areas in Gold Coast City, Australia showed that optimized post development is at least 45 percent effective means for removal of pollutants from urban stormwater runoff. Also, small coefficient of variation (0.005) of the results of different runs indicated that there is a proper convergence of MUSIC-GA results toward the global optimal solution.
Keywords: Urban stormwater, Water sensitive urban design, MUSIC, Constructed wetland, Genetic algorithm


pii: S225204301400042-4

Evaluation of Stability of Spillway Gable Roof of Nazlu Dam via Slide Software


Original Article, D42
Davoudi S, Siosemarde M, Merufinia E.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 274-281. 2014

ABSTRACT: The most prominent issue in the civil projects such as construction of dams is providing stable steeps of rocks and stones. Such studies aim at providing a gable roof’s stability coefficient in order to provide stability as well as an economical solution. This survey wills analysis the gable roof’s stability overlooking to the overflow body of Nazlu dam. According to results of exploratory boreholes related to the bed and results of investigation of particles existing on the gable roof, it can be deduced that crunch levels of gable roof's stones, their oxidation, continuation rate (the extent or duration of discontinuities), level spacing (the amount of vertical spacing between adjacent discontinuities of a joint sets), and patency rate (amount of vertical spacing between adjacent walls of a discontinuity) is variable between minor to moderate cases, minor to moderate cases,1 to 10 mm , 0.2 to 1, 2 to 10 mm, respectively. Filling-in rate of the stones is made of CaCo3 and sometimes calcic or clay. The shale part of the gable roof is severely crunched which indicates its instability. The result of instability analysis linked to the gable roof via the slide software (Version 6.0) on the three cutting section AA' (initial section of overflow part), BB'(median section of overflow part) and CC' (terminal section of overflow part) showed that most suitable stable steep will be AA', BB' cutting section between 45 to 60 degree and CC' between 40 to 45 degree. To create such steeps the need of extreme stone lifting is incontrovertible. But instead the desired steep will be provided and those lifted material will be used in the body construction of the dam.
Keywords: Limit Equilibrium Methods, Nazlu Dam, RDQ Index, Stability of Slope


pii: S225204301400043-4

Comparative Hydraulic Simulation of Water Hammer in Transition Pipe Line Systems with Different Diameter and Types


Original Article, D43
Sharif F, Siosemarde M, Merufinia E, Esmat Saatlo M.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 282-286. 2014

ABSTRACT: The transient pressure caused by water hammer events is sufficient to fracture pipes and some equipment, and for this reason alone the study of the phenomenon in transitional pipe line system is of considerable practical importance. In addition, the diameter and pipe type should be considered to attenuate the transient pressure wave. The paper describes the theory about transient analysis and shows technique in numerical simulation of water hammer in transitional pipe line systems by substituting for different pipe types and diameter or both simultaneously and analyzing the velocity and the type of direct or reflected transitional waves which will the intensities in places where these changes occur and also in boundary conditions. The results indicated that pipe selection and substitution could be from low elastic modulus to high elastic modulus. In order to reduce pressure fluctuation it is advisable to choose pipes with most similar elastic modulus and one greater diameter size.
Keywords: Elastic modulus, Pipe line, Transient pressure, Water hammer


pii: S225204301400044-4

Numerical Simulations of Distribution and Sediment Transmission in Pre Settled Pools Using Finite Volume Method and Comparison with Experimental Results


Original Article, D44
Borna MR, Janfeshan Araqi H, Merufinia E, Asnaashari A.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 287-292. 2014

ABSTRACT: Pre settled pools were most important elements in water purification process. Because of enormous cost of making these pools which have been allocated about 30% of the total cost to water purification process Modeling and optimal performance of Pre settled pools is very important. In pre settled tools due to different gradients of, secondary flow and rotational have been changed. These phenomena are caused to create short paths, increasing resident zones and dead flows and changes in the levels of flow which preventing laminar flow conditions in order to reduce efficiency of pools. The first step is to optimize Pre settled pools, correct calculation of the velocity and volume of the rotating parts. In this study, the numerical simulation of flow in a rectangular pool is studied and continuity and Stokes equations were solved using finite volume method. Flow simulations in three dimensional model using of turbulence k-ε standard and velocity profiles at different sections of the pool have been compared and there was good agreement. Afterwards, in order to evaluate style of sedimentation in pre settled pool, diffusion and transfer of sediment concentration was solved simultaneously by hydraulic flow equations and finally results of vertical distribution of sediment profiles have been compared by laboratory result of other researcher which shows good adaptation of numerical results and laboratory results as well as capacity of this model to predict distribution of sediment profiles in pre settled pools.
Keywords: Pre Settled Pools, Profile of Flow Velocity, Distribution of Sediment Concentration


pii: S225204301400045-4

Estimation of Daily Discharge of Baranduz River via Chaos Theory


Original Article, D45
Pour Mohammad Aghdam A, Asheghi R, Merufinia E.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 293-297. 2014

ABSTRACT: The chaotic behavior of monthly precipitation time series is investigated using the phase-space reconstruction technique and the principal component analysis method. To reconstruct phase space, the time delay and embedding dimension are needed and for this purpose, average mutual information and algorithm of false nearest neighbors are used. The delay time for Baranduz River is calculated via the average mutual information method which is equal to 66. The most suitable inscribed dimension, by use of false nearest neighbors approach, is about 28. The correlation in time series of water flow is equal to 3.1 which require at least 3 variables to describe the system. The low value of correlation in daily scale is an indication of the existence of chaos in the water flow of Baranduz Chay River.

Keywords: Baranduz Chay River, Chaos Theory, Correlation Dimension, Delay Time


pii: S225204301400046-4

 Criteria of Passive Defensein Subway Stations


Original Article, D46
Kameli M., Zarei S., Kalantari M., SoleimanNejad E.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 298-304. 2014

ABSTRACT: Defense is an integrated concept, which includes both active and passive defenses. The effects of the war include heavy human and material losses and damages to cities that can be reduced by using passive defense measures and methods before the outbreak of the war. Metro (subway) trains, as one of the critical infrastructures, with a dual function can be considered as a settlement of refugees, and can be applied in times of crisis and threat. Observing safety and protection standards against natural and unnatural threats, gives a defensive approach to the subway buildings as their main feature. This paper provides a brief description about how to apply, benefit, and perform the methods of passive defense in metro stations as a secure underground area, considering the global experiences and investigates the basic and important components of the Metro, the types of threat and vulnerability, the economic justification and the functions of the metro stations with a descriptive-analytic approach, and then offers some considerations and solutions for the relevant passive defense. After achieving the technical criteria and applying them in the Architectural designing phase, in the event of a possible modern war (called the sixth generation of wars) the citizens' security will increase, and the defensive power and national security will enhance subsequently.
Keywords: The Subway, Designing, Passive Defense, Threat, Architecture.


pii: S225204301400047-4

An Analysis on Studies of Population Developments of Ardabil City


Original Article, D47
EbrhaimzadehAsmin H.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 305-314. 2014

ABSTRACT: Studying a society’s Population changes is important for any planning. Since all eco-social planning are designed due to the society’s requirements and demands and so all of eco-social aspects of these planning are in relation to population statistics and population structure characteristics. The paper has been written about studying population changes in Ardabil city; herein, these changes and their reasons of existence are exactly assessed and analyzed so that a suitable field for appropriate planning in future could be provided. On this base, methodology of this paper is descriptive-analytical and quantitative. The main obtained results indicated that the population growth rate of this city except of 80s was approximately even. Ardabil city is about to experience a population transition and its population go toward adultery. Population density in this city hasn’t been dispersed evenly and therefore several city regions have the highest density. In this case study, fertility and birth rates are high on one hand and on the other hand, mortality rate is low. Sex ratio, in this city, has lower trend and also proportion of male to female figures is to decline. Literate estate is not suitable among women. And the last point that employers’ ratio has and will have declined, which is why the percentage of unemployed people have a high trend.
Keywords: Population Change; Planning; Statistics; Population Structure; Ardabil city


pii: S225204301400048-4

Performance Removal Nitrate and Phosphate from Treated Municipal Wastewater Using Phragmites Australis and Typha Latifolia Aquatic Plants


Original Article, D48
Rezaie H, Salehzadeh M.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 315-321. 2014

ABSTRACT: Effluent generally includes nutrient elements like nitrogen and phosphorus. Its discharge to water resources leads to an increase in the growth of different types of algae، hence it is necessary to decrease the amount of phosphorus and nitrogen as much as possible before discharging of effluent to water resources. The use of aquatic plants is one of the effective methods for refining nitrogen and phosphorus in polluted water. In this research, performance of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia planted in sewage channels with subsurface flow to filter nitrate & phosphate of municipal wastewater is investigated. To carry out, outdoor channels with 3 meters length and 0.15 meter width were build. The pilot system consisted of channels which were filled with ripples (diameter of 10-20 mm, 50% porosity) up to 0.07 of height of channel. The plants was planted in channels and the sewage sample, which was taken from Urmia University wastewater with a constant  flow 30 ml/min routed through the system in form of subsurface flow. The effluent inters a tank outlet. Samples were taken every week for a period of 6 weeks and DO, PH, Nitrate (NO-3 – N) and phosphate (PO4-3 – P) were measured in output and input of the system. Average increase of  DO and PH  for Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia channels were 204, 205 & 9, 9.1 percent respectively and average reduction of Nitrate and phosphate were 81.43, 92.66 and 83.66, 74.26 percent respectively.
Keywords: Nitrate, Phosphate, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, channel, Wastewater.


pii: S225204301400049-4

Determining the Amount and Location of Leakage in Water Supply Networks Using a Neural Network Improved by the Bat Optimization Algorithm


Original Article, D49
Faghafur Maghrebi M., Aghaebrahimi M.R., Taherian H and Attari M.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 322-327. 2014

ABSTRACT: At present, water waste has become a global concern. On the other hand, the amount of sweet water on the earth is fixed and limited but the demand for water is increasing. This, more than ever before, makes it necessary to modify the consumption pattern. One of the most important consumption management activities is to decrease the uncounted water. Water leakage not only results in loss of good-quality water resources, but also pollutes the drinking water and in its worst form brings about serious damages to people and building around the point of leakage. In this paper, a model is presented for determining the amount and location of leakage in water supply networks. In this model which uses a neural network improved by the bat optimization algorithm, the amount and location of leakage in the network  is determined by the minimum number of pressure-measuring. The proposed model is applied on the Poulakis network when several simultaneous leakages have occurred, and the accuracy of the model is verified by the results.
Keywords: Leakage Detection, Barometers Placement, Neural Network, Bat Algorithm.


pii: S225204301400050-4

Assessment of the Laws and Regulations Regarding to Housing Indicators in Iran


Original Article, D50
Hamzehlou S., Hamzehlou S.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 328-332. 2014

ABSTRACT: The unorganized status of housing in all around the world was driving force of emphasizing on “adequate housing right” as a human right by different institutions of United Nations and Civil society organizations around the globe. After the revolution of Islamic Republic of Iran, Iranian government has confirmed general guidelines and policies for housing in terms of economic social and cultural development programs to obtain adequate housing right, which is appointed explicitly in constitution. The large number of families without shelter and also inappropriate residential units especially in suburban, slum dog, are the issues which are considered as bad housing and homeless, reveals the necessity for analysis of housing-related regulations and indicators. In this study, initially, we analysed and defined housing rights and its contents to provide a clear picture of the right of housing in Iranian legal system. Then, we reviewed the importance of the right by observation the government's duties about housing and finally we investigated the efficiency of regulations related to housing by comparison of these regulations and the extent of their competence in accordance with housing indicators.
Keywords: Housing, Physical Indexes, Human Rights, Shelter.


pii: S225204301400051-4

Nature up High Apartment (Green Roof)


Original Article, D51
MehdiNezhad M.R., AmirKolaee E., Nikbakht H.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 333-339. 2014

ABSTRACT: Nowadays cities benefit from two geographical (natural, social, and economical environments) and artificial (man-made environment, and architecture) symbols. Mankind has always been trying to change these two symbols for the sake of his daily activities or earning his life and establishing a dwelling both as an interest and as a shelter. During this process green areas, jungles, and gardens have been changed into skyscrapers and buildings. Bricks, cement, and metallic plates have replaced for attractive views of nature. Today’s citizens have a sad feeling while they see that they have fallen far from the beauties and quietness of nature. To solve this problem, industrialists have developed the green roof technology. Urban planners and architects use it as a ‘back to nature’ process. Green roof is a method to convert the rough, dry, and cold parts of the city into green spots. Besides green roofs can create micro-climatic zones which reduce pollution and improve the living conditions of the citizens. Green roof is the subject whose Iranians were acquainted with it since long to now but necessity of it doesn’t consider by responsible comparatively. Clarification and expanding of this issue has been explained in this paper. In addition, using some of benefits and condition of performance of the layers of green roof, it has been tried to utilize the green roof in the future more as much as its popularity in that past. To be considering of the architecture in making a city, this necessity gets more highlight if green roof systems get installed on the roofs of the buildings of a city, it will be important effect in all architecture sides of that city and it too high extent decreases architecture limitations. This process is highly advantageous for cities like Tehran which is located in a 730 sq. km of land delimited by mountains and deserts. 67.9 percent of the city is occupied by buildings and about thirteen million people live in this city. Green roofs are good means for reducing these problems of Tehran.
Keywords: Green Roof, Roof Garden, Drain, Artificial Filter, Damp-Proof Coarse


pii: S225204301400052-4

Completion Nature Attitude in Dast Kand Architecture of Tamin Village of Iran


Original Article, D52
Sargazi MA
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 340-344. 2014

ABSTRACT: Tamin Village has a special place of importance in the villages of Zahedan situated in the south-east of Iran. In this village that Tamin Village Mirjaveh the division of functions between Zahedan city located about 65 km southwest of the city Mirjaveh, in addition to climate measures used in architecture, appropriate integration of the village is formed between the body and nature. One of the manifestations and impact of the consolidation of bilateral nature and village architecture, form and architectural features is Dast Kand rocky village. Dast Kand architecture at this village displays reflections of human’s confrontation with the nature in order to complete the nature. This article presents the theoretical framework and understanding of rock architecture of Tamin Village. The analytical method, based on documentary and field goals in the face of human nature based on beliefs and oral culture of the region and analyzed the data. The results of field studies in the context of rural housing proves Tamin Dast Kand Village architecture in terms of morphology, while the unique requirements among other villages Dast Kand of Iran like “Meymand” and ”Kandovan”. To sum up, this article struggle with the aim of human nature in architecture Tamin rocky village in order to make use of the nature of housing and the completion of nature. Changes in the nature of tamin, not only the destruction of the environment is not the surrounding environment, but also has been completed.
Keywords: Tamin Village, Dast Kand Architecture, Completion Nature


pii: S225204301400053-4

Evaluation of the Most Influential Criteria of Desirability of High-rise buildings in Urban Landscape by Using ANP


Original Article, D53
Salehi N, Zabihi H, Zarabadi ZS.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(3): 345-352. 2014

ABSTRACT: Tall buildings are defined as signs and certain points in urban view, if located and constructed properly, and their appropriateness indicators based upon urban view by determined Strategies, policies, rules and regulations, shall play significant and peculiar role in upgrading the quality of life of citizens. Quality upgrade of urban public places, once will find its optimal process and fulfilment that indicators such as impact on strategic views, definition of sky-line, legibility participation as a sign, impact on inseparable environment and etc., to be based upon ideas of experts, stakeholders and utilizing effective and scientific methods. Since there are various ideas about most effective indicators of appropriateness for tall buildings, the objective of the article is the identification of most effective indicators of appropriateness for tall buildings (using Analysis of Network Process, ANP). This article as a descriptive analysis research method and was based on documentary-library studies, field surveys, going directly to the beneficiary organizations and competent owners, and also was based on questionnaires. Accordingly, first extracting issues associated with the tall buildings and the urban view and then providing ANP conceptual model which includes three benchmarks and several indicators and the results of the surveys were analysed with the software SUPER DECISION. Due to the sheer size of the operation, only a few of inputs were written in the article as samples. The results of this study shows that the most effective criteria of tall buildings, performance indicator 0.75 and the most effective indicator “impact on strategic views” is value of 0.277 that in determining its policies and strategies should be prioritized to tall buildings which shapes an optimal urban view.
Keywords: High-rise Buildings, Urban Landscapes, Impressive Indicators, ANP.